Günümüz Batı dünyasında İslam ve şiddet arasında çok sıkı bir bağ kurulduğuna, hatta topyekûn müslümanların şiddetsever bir kitle olduğuna ilişkin küresel ölçekli bir algı oluşturulduğuna tanık olunmaktadır. İslam ve müslümanlar hakkında böyle bir menfi algının oluşmasında geleneksel fıkıh doktrininde savaşın temel gerekçesini küfür ve kâfirlerin varlığına bağlama anlayışının yanında Joseph Schacht, Rudolph Peters gibi Batılı bazı araştırmacıların cihad kavramını İslam ve müslümanların emperyal hedeflerine hizmet eden bir araç ve kaldıraç olarak tanımlamalarının payı bulunmaktadır; ancak bize göre söz konusu algıyı besleyen en önemli faktör hâl-i hazırda kan gölü görünümündeki Ortadoğu coğrafyasında IŞİD (DAEŞ) gibi örgütlerce üretilen şiddet ve terörün Kur’an ve cihad gibi referanslara atıfla meşrulaştırılmaya çalışılmasıdır. IŞİD (DAEŞ) örgütüyle ilgili birçok analizde şiddet ve terörün Kur’an ve yorum meselesiyle ilgili olduğu özellikle vurgulanmaktadır. Kimilerince kabul gören bu analizler din referanslı şiddetle Kur’an ve yorum arasında doğrudan bir bağ bulunup bulunmadığı meselesini etraflıca tartışmayı gerekli kılmaktadır.
Nowadays, it seems as if there is a conjunction of Islam and violence in Western belief. Some might even come to connect Muslim people with a violence-prone entity. Such perception is based on the traditional concept of war (battle) which claims that both kufr (the lack of faith) and the existence of infidels is a reason to go to war. Furthermore, it was circulated by Western researchers such as Joseph Schacht, Rudolph Peters, who suggest that the term Jihad has been exploited by certain Islamic states and Muslims for their imperialist aspirations. We would, yet, propose that such link is facilitated by groups such IS who come to justify their violent approach to terrorism with references to the Qur'an and the concept of Jihad. There seems to be a distinctive connection between terrorism, violence and the exegesis of Qur’an in many IS interpretations. It is such widespread misconception that highlights the need for a more scientific approach to the question whether religious violence is connected to the Qur'an and its exegesis or not.
It is a matter of common knowledge that throughout history religion has often been perceived as the driving force behind multi-dimensional excesses, projects of social reform or societal engineering, ambitions of power, and political squabbles and face-offs, and has been wielded in these contexts. In the case of Islam, the instrumentalization of religion and its abuse for various agendas is a commonly encountered situation in our contemporary world, especially in the Middle Eastern landscape that includes Turkey. One factor, among many, that strips religion of its essence is the failure to properly identify points of convergence and divergence between religion and societal order/law, while treating and evaluating the religious and the non-religious together in a haphazard way. Under these circumstances, it is not only the voices that are raised and the demands that are made in the name of religion that lose their meaning, but also the anti-religious discourses and reactions. As a result, religion becomes the plaything of social conflicts and polarizations on the societal level and of spiritual upheavals, turmoil, and excesses on the individual level.
Whether the tendency to radicalization and violence found in modern Islamist movements is caused by religion or by fundamental religious texts is a matter open to discussion. We maintain that exterior motives and global/imperialist engagements are more defining factors in radicalization and proclivity to violence than religion per se or its sources, which in this case have the status of instruments. It is even possible to argue that depending on the given social and political situation, religion can adopt various functions ranging from improving order and well-being in society to promoting chaos; and that it is, in a way, an instrument of justification. Put more openly, religion can function as a cement supporting the present order when there is a strong and well-functioning political order, system, and authority. On the other hand, when disorder and chaos reign in different parts of the Islamic world, as is the case today, religion can turn into a tool of conflict, disintegration, and manipulation. This also holds for religious sects. In a climate of strong political and social stability, different religious schools and sects can be an asset, or at least they can be perceived as such. However, in a contrary situation, these very same sects may be manipulated as a major factor in the retrospective clashes and conflicts among Muslims of varying propensities subscribing to different identities. As such, following the invasion of Iraq by the US and its allies in 2003, law and order in this region crumbled into pieces. In the chaotic atmosphere produced by this invasion, hundreds of thousands became victims of violence. Terrorist organizations parading a religious point of reference found themselves a firm stronghold in this atmosphere of lawlessness and chaos. These organizations mobilized religion as the most effective source of motivation in order to give a garb of meaning to their acts of terror and violence. In an atmosphere of escalating war and violence, reading and interpreting religious texts as calls to war is perceived as normal and ordinary. When looked at from this point of view, it becomes necessary to shift our attention to the matter of identifying the sociological contexts in which religion or religious texts are associated with violence, instead of directly labeling a given religion as “the source and reference point of violence”.
The increasingly Middle-Eastern-centric nature of radical movements that feature religion as a reference point and sectarian conflicts between Muslims exhibiting various temperaments is a reality that further testifies to the fact that concepts of religion and denomination turn into tools of fragmentation, conflict, and justification in environments of political chaos. Without a doubt, imperialist engagements play a very important role in this Middle East centered chaos, which has been continuing since the day the Ottoman Empire, the last and greatest Muslim political authority in the world, retreated from the historical stage. However, it also needs to be said that the astonishing tendency shown by Muslims to being openly and easily manipulated in these exploits is closely related to the deteriorating spiritual health of the entire ummah. At the same time, it should be kept in mind that groups resorting to radicalization and violence belong more commonly to the ranks of those whose identities have been rejected and marginalized, who have been pushed out of their living space and made powerless, and who have therefore resolved to prove their identities and create a space of power and influence for themselves. For it is clear that reaching such a goal by legitimate means is both costly and laborious.
The trend of radicalization in religious movements that has increasingly been gaining momentum in the Islamic world is related on the one hand to the dynamics of conflict which can in a way be described as the domestic issues of the Islamic world and whose historical roots go back to the death of the Prophet, and on the other hand to the tendency to perceive religion as an ideology and to willingly and knowingly read and understand religious texts in an anachronistic style with the purported aim of seeking out “the sole and absolute truth”, turning away from the pluralism that is to be found in the history and the tradition. Scratching the wounds of ancient conflicts and digging out the old battle axes from the depths of history are deeply painful signs of the failure of the Islamic world to come to its senses despite having been stung from the same hole countless times thanks to the Middle-East-centered exploits of global actors, as well as its inability to derive a lesson from this great disgrace
Modern dünyada, dinlerin yapısal olarak şiddet içerdiğine ilişkin eleştiriler yapılmaktadır. Fakat diğer bazıları ise dinsel şiddetin dini inançlara dayanmadığını, bunun yerine topluluklar, kimlikler, politikalar ve çıkarlara dayalı olarak şiddetin ortaya çıktığını ifade etmektedirler. Diğer taraftan tek tanrılı dinler kutsal metinlerini ilahi vahye dayanan Tanrı’nın sözü olarak görmektedirler. Dolayısıyla bunların şartlara ve zamana göre yorumlanması gerekmektedir. Ne var ki, radikaller, laikler ve mistikler kutsal metne kendi görüşlerine göre yaklaşmakta ve yorumlamaktadırlar. Sonuçta farklı modeller ve metotlarla yapılan yorumlar, farklı ekol ve grupların oluşmasına neden olmakta, her dinin içinde birbiriyle çatışan ve hatta uzlaşması mümkün olmayan yorumlar ortaya çıkmakta ve her biri de aynı kutsal metne istinat etmektedir. Burada önemli olan şey, Tanrı’nın bizim için irade ettiği nihai hedefi bilmek ve onu başarmaktır. Bizim kanaatimize göre Tanrı insanlığın kaderi için barış, kardeşlik ve eşitlik istemiştir; şiddet ve terör değil. Sonuçta kutsal metinlerin Tanrı’nın bu nihai iradesini gerçekleştirecek tarzda yorumlanması gerekmektedir.
Anahtar Kelimeler: Dinler, Modern dünya, Kutsal metinler, Yorum, Şiddet, Tanrı’nın iradesi
The Relationship Between Text, Context And Interpretation In The Content Of The Religious Violence
Introduction and Purpose of the Study
A heated discussion about whether sacred texts support and guides starts immediately after all acts of violence that appears likely to be religious origin in contemporary secular world. Whenever there are images or commandments of violence in sacred texts, it is witnessed that some religious people who accept these sacred texts as an authority tends to use violence or justify their violent action depending on them. However, it is a fact that sacred texts contain principles about violence; on the contrary, they also include messages about compassion, reconciliation, peace and love. So, here arises the crucial question that we must think about deeply and answer honestly: How does an individual decide / will decide which of these messages is determinant? Purpose of this study is to find an answer to this question.
Theoretical and Conceptual Framework of the Study
While shaping the conceptual and theoretical framework of our study, we address the differences between text and scripture in the first place. In this manner, in our opinion, the text are written sacred texts that we have now. Scripture is the context of the text, which formed throughout in a certain historical, geographical, cultural, traditional and linguistic environment.
Interpreting a sacred text is shaped by the ideas imposed by a particular group (community / sect) or group leader. Sacred texts have an central importance in every religious tradition, especially those called Western Religions which are Judaism, Christianity and Islam. There might be different factors that lead to abuse of sacred text which means abuse of religion itself. These factors are: Absolute claim of the truth, blind obedience, conceive of building an ‘ideal’ future, belief in ‘it is over’ and declaration of holy war. Some of these factors are mentioned briefly in our study.
Our study is a descriptive study. Adherence to the principles of objectivity, it is tried to explain whether religious texts constitute a source for violence or not. We also did share views of some scientist and philosophers about this subject.
Results and Discussion
Although there are many different factors in the formation of religious feeling from sacred text and their interpretation, four basic understanding that we have reached can be discussed as a result of this study.
First understanding is about individual relationships, emotions and mystery-dimensional. People with this understanding are not interested in rationality, institutions and views of religious authorities. One and only authority for these people is scripture itself and there can be only one true and valid interpretation.
Second understanding is about religious pluralism. Individual preferences are shaped in relation with holy and other individual. Sacred texts may have different meanings for different communities and needs. Interpreting is not very important and its purpose is to be a useful guidance for individuals even though it isn’t accepted universally.
Third understanding is about rationality and institutions. Emotions and relationships have less importance for people with this understanding. These people either rejects or skeptical about mystery and irrational phenomena. According to this understanding, authority of the sacred text comes from a group, an institution or their limitations. Text may be subject to abstract and analytical reading and a result is induced accordingly.
Fourth understanding is considered a harmony between other three which centers the human experience. Decisions are taken considering rational and wisdom, individual and institution at the same time.
All of these understandings are about the relationship between the individual and text. However, the individuals who read the text are subjects dependent on the text, but also they live in a society, have certain historical and cultural background, have their own unique languages, and equipped with a certain interpretation power. Sacred texts in todays’ world are like Adam’s corpse without soul. Human who is cognizant that he’s equipped with a divine spirit and has a sense of responsibility must grant that ‘soul’.
Conclusions and Recommendations
Sacred texts have perfected in a long historical process and in interaction with certain historical conditions. As a natural consequence of that, sacred texts contains messages for peace and violence at the same time. It is essential for religions, or better say religious people, to interpret these texts in a way to solve people’s problems. As a requirement, verses about violence in these texts should be bracketed (epoché). By doing so, it is expected to reach the ‘essence’ of religion, which is Creator’s real goal: ultimate peace.
God, man and scriptures are opposed to stability. Because God, human and scriptures are within life, alive and thus, they are in motion. For example, once Bible justified monarchy of the divine law, and today same Bible adapts to democracy. It is easy to find verses glorifying peace and promoting love but ten verses apart there are also verses glorifying and justifying violence. It is evident that, Bible, Gospels and Quran could have been read in different ways throughout history.
Only fanatics can claim that there is one and unique interpretation for sacred texts only. But if all other interpretations are thought to be true at the same rate, the adoption of a particular interpretation of a text poses some difficulties. So, Holy as a whole, sacred texts, humans and contemporary era should be kept in mind while interpreting. In addition, against the terrorism, a modern virus, a peaceful bridge should be established. Which connects the text with human, and human with the text by union of fair and wise religious people. In terms of purpose-vehicle relationship, scriptures are for humans, not the other way. Religious commentaries that will be made in our contemporary world should be within these understandings and should be based on tolerance and good faith and should be rescued from pragmatic approaches of policy. Maybe then, religion may contribute a little to the solution of basic problems of humanity.
Keywords: Religions, modern world, sacred texts, interpretation, violence, God’s purpose
Şiddet konusu üzerine yapılan araştırmaların ortak vurgusu şiddetin son derece karmaşık ve çok boyutlu bir olgu olduğudur. Bu çalışma ile de şiddete ilişkin boyutlardan birisi olduğu varsayılan kişilik özellikleri üzerinde durulacaktır. Bu anlamda ilk olarak şiddet kavramı ortaya konulmaya çalışılacak ve literatür değerlendirmesine yer verilecektir. Sonrasında ise kişilik konusuna değinilecek ve kişilik konusunda ortaya çıkan yaklaşımlar tartışılacaktır. Daha sonra her iki değişken arasındaki ilişki üzerine gerçekleştirilen araştırmaya ilişkin istatistiksel analizler ve sonuçlarına yer verilecektir. Son olarak ise araştırma verilerinin değerlendirildiği sonuç bölümü ile çalışma tamamlanacaktır.
Bu çalışma da lise düzeyinde öğrenim gören gençler arasında şiddet ile kişilik özellikleri arasında bir ilişki olup olmadığını ve eğer böyle bir ilişki söz konusu ise kişilik grupları arasında şiddete en yatkın grubun belirlenmesini amaçlamaktadır. Araştırmada Kayseri ilindeki devlet okullarında öğrenim gören 587 Lise öğrencisi üzerinde anket yöntemi ile veri toplanmıştır. Şiddete eğilimin ölçülmesinde Haskan ve Yıldırım (2012) tarafından geliştirilen ‘Şiddet Eğilimi Ölçeği’; kişilik özelliklerinin belirlenmesinde ise ‘Beş Etmen Teorisi’ kullanılmıştır.
Verilen çözümlenmesinde ve analiz edilmesinde bağımsız örneklem t testi kullanılmıştır. Ayrıca ortalamalar arasında anlamlılık seviyesinde ilişkilerin olup olmadığının belirlenmesi için Tek yönlü ANOVA tekniğine başvurulmuştur.
Anahtar Kelimeler: Şiddet, Kişilik, Lise öğrencileri, Şiddet Eğilim Ölçeği, Beş Etmen Teorisi
A Psychological Research on The Relationship Between Personality and Violence
Introduction and Purpose of the Study
Despite the rules established to allow people and societies to coexist and live in a system and the predictions of "reducing the incidence of violence" with the development of civilizations and societies, injustice, murder, violence and terror continue to exist even at different levels. Occasionally, social conditions, level of education, economic troubles and media are shown as a source of violence, but it is also necessary to think of other and deeper roots of the phenomenon. From the perspective of psychology, psychiatrists generally tend to focus on the individual's personality traits while investigating the factors that cause behavior toward violence. However, despite this general situation, the lack of a comprehensive research on the subject is a great deficiency in terms of the measures to be developed for the area and the violence. Indeed, linking violence only to personality traits means expressing the fact that the problem is caused by a structural inequality between the sexes, but violence is a structural question.
This study aims to determine whether there is a relationship between violence and personality traits among young people who are studying at high school level and to determine the most susceptible group among personality groups if such a relationship is mentioned.
Theoretical and Conceptual Framework of the Study
The study carried out on two concepts. The concept of violence is first addressed. The emphasis of researches on violence is that it is extremely complex and multidimensional concept. Violence has been descripted from different angles and there is no concensus on it. The definitions of violence seem to differ in terms of scope particularly. Traditional definitions emphasize the physical actions committed with the intent to harm. Recently this concept has been expanded to include psychologic and sexual assaults. In Turkish violence is an Arabic world etymologically and means hardness, firmness, roughness. In the literature WHO’s definition is widespread. WHO definates it as intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, which either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation.
Secondly this study also focuses on personality traits that that are supposed to be one of the dimensions of violence. When the literature is evaluated, it is seen that the personality is mostly tried to be defined as the schools of psychoanalysis, humanism, cognitive psychology. However, it can be said that when approaching the topic from the upper level, personality includes the individual's distinctive and distinctive behaviors. It is seen that the definitions on personality are based on two basic assumptions. First, personality traits are stable over time. Most people acknowledge that the behavior of an individual will naturally vary from situation to situation, but is a basic consistency that defines the 'true nature' of the individual. Second, personality traits are generally believed to directly affect behavior. If an individual suddenly starts singing a cheerful song, it is possible to describe him as a happy person.
In the study data were gathered by questionnaire on 587 high school students in public schools in Kayseri province. The 'Violence Tendency Scale' developed by Haskan and Yildirim (2012) measured the trend of violence; 'Five Factor Theory' was used in determining the personality traits.
Independent sample t Test was used in the analysis and analysis provided. In addition, a one-way ANOVA technique was used to determine whether there was a relationship between the averages at the level of significance.
Results and Discussion
When the data were processed, scores obtained from the students' Violence Tendency Scale were subjected to item analysis according to the difference between the upper and lower groups. After the 27% of the upper and lower groups were identified, the students were divided into three categories: 'intense tendency towards violence', 'tendency towards violence' and 'non-tendency towards violence'. When the scores of the categories are evaluated, it is seen that the students in the range of 20-29 points are in the group with no tendency to violence; It was determined that the students in the age range of 30-36 constituted a group with a tendency to violence and the students in the range of 37-60 were highly prone to violence.
There was no violence tendency in the students who were in the group of 19,1% (n = 112) of the research results. However, 35.1% of the students (n = 206) were prone to violence; And 45.8% (n = 269) were found to be more prone to violence. It is very striking that 80.9% (n = 475) of the non-violent group are out of the group.
According to Anova analysis, it was determined that development was related to the level of meaningfulness between the subgroups except for openness and the tendency to violence. According to this, between the tendency of violence and neuroticism, compatibility and self-discipline, p =, 000; There is a significant relationship between extroversion and p = 005. Because of the analysis, there was no significant relationship between the developmental clearance and the tendency to violence.
Keywords: Violence, Personality, High school students, Big Five, Violence Tendency Scale
Kadına yönelik şiddet ülkemizde gündemden düşmeyen sıcak konulardan biridir. Yaşamımızda her gün kadına yönelik şiddet ile ilgili haberlere televizyon, internet veya radyo gibi farklı yollardan maruz kalabiliyoruz. Bu çalışmada evlilikte kadına yönelik fiziksel şiddet ile dini dünya görüşleri arasındaki ilişkiler incelenmiştir. Çalışmaya Orta Anadolu’da bir devlet üniversitesinde eğitim - öğrenim görmekte olan toplam 207 öğrenci gönüllü olarak katılmıştır. Çalışmanın verileri ‘Evlilikte Kadına Yönelik Fiziksel Şiddete İlişkin Tutumlar Ölçeği’ ve ‘Dini Dünya Görüşleri Ölçeği’ yardımıyla toplanmıştır. Verilerin analizinde nicel araştırma teknikleri (ortalamalar, yüzdeler, korelasyonlar, t-testi ve ANOVA) kullanılmıştır. Bulgular, katılımcıların şiddete yönelik tutum puanlarının ortalamanın altında; dini dünya görüşleri puanlarının ise ortalamanın üstünde olduğunu göstermiştir. Erkeklerin evlilikte kadına yönelik fiziksel şiddete yönelik tutum puanları kadınlardan anlamlı olarak daha yüksek çıkmıştır. Bunlara ek olarak, kadına yönelik fiziksel şiddete ilişkin tutumlar ile dini dünya görüşleri arasında olumsuz yönde istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir ilişki (r=-,163, p<,05) saptanmıştır. Araştırmanın bulguları ilgili literatür temelinde tartışılmış ve önerilerde bulunulmuştur.
Anahtar Kelimeler: Şiddet, Dünya görüşleri, Din, Kadın
Examining The Relatıonship Between Violence Against Women And Religious Worldviews
Women are the most important members of the family. Therefore, violence against women in the family affects not only the women but also the whole society. An individual socializes in a family and learns behaviors in the family. According to Social Role Theory, children observe the roles of men and women in the family and learn the appropriate roles for men and women in the society (Eagly, 1987).
Violence against women is a public health problem and is recognized as a human rights violation worldwide (Krantz & Garcia-Moreno, 2005). Violence against women is a serious human rights violation which has physical, psychological, emotional and social consequences. This is also both a reason and a result of gender inequality. It is based historically on unequal power relations between men and women. Violence against women is generally supported by social and cultural values, structures and applications (Office of the United Nations, 2014).
In our country violence against women is one of the hottest topics in the agenda. We can be exposed to news related to violence via television, internet or radio in our everyday lifes. Violence against women includes a number of abuses throughout women’s lives (Krantz & Garcia-Moreno, 2005). This kind of violence is a socio-cultural problem which makes women dependent, decreases self-esteem and distorts both physical and mental health (T.C. Prime Ministry General Directorate of the Status of Women, 2009).
According to literature, there are various forms of violence against women. These can be listed as follows; (a) physical violence, (b) psychological violence, (c) sexual violence and (d) economic violence (Karal & Aydemir, 2012). This study focused on physical violence.
Physical violence is defined as (a) slapping or throwing to harm, (b) pushing and pulling hair, (c) hitting with a punch or something to harm, (d) dragging, beating, kicking or throwing, (e) threatening with a knife or a gun (Fanslow, Gulliver, Dixon & Ayallo, 2015).
Religion as a belief includes ideas, values, attitudes and perspectives. In practice religion constitutes individual and social expressions of religious worldviews as piety, ritual, ceremony and religious practice (Call, 2012). The importance and prevalence of religious worldviews in developing and developed countries requires to investigate how religion has an impact on individuals, communities and societies to create a sense about the world (Deneulin & Rakodi, 2011).
In this study, the relationship between physical violence against women in marriage and religious worldviews is examined.
A total of 207 vocational college students of a state university from Middle Anatolian region voluntarily participated to the study. 32,9 % of the participants are men and 67,1 % are women. Most of the participants’ average family income level is low (50,75 %), The percentage of middle income level is % 35,68 and high income level is 13,57 %.
Data Collection Tools
Data of the study was collected with the help of ‘Attitudes towards Physical Violence against Women in Marriage Scale’ and ‘Religious Worldviews Scale’.
Quantitative analyses methods (means, percentages, correlations, t-test and ANOVA) were used in analyzing the data.
Findings showed that participants’ attitudes towards violence scores (for legitimizing the violence =1,97; for perceived benefit of the violence =1,54; for results of the violence =2,26) are under the mean score and religious worldview scores ( =3,98) are above the mean score.
The answers of the participants for the question ‘Have you ever been exposed to violence?’ is as follows; 15,20 % of the participants answer this question as yes and 84,80 % answer as no.
Physical violence against women in marriage score of men are significantly higher than women (for legitimizing the violence t=-11,111, p<,05; for perceived benefit of the violence t= -8,057, p<,05; for results of the violence t=-6,171, p<,05).
In addition to these results, there is a statistically significant relationship between physical violence against women and religious worldviews (r=-,163, p<,05).
There is a statistically significant difference between income level of the family of respondents and legitimizing of the violence (F=3,967, p<,05).
Discussion and Conclusion
In this study, the effect of religious worldviews on physical violence against women during marriage was investigated.
Participants’ attitudes towards violence scores (for legitimizing the violence =1,97; for perceived benefit of the violence =1,54; for results of the violence =2,26) are under the mean score. This means that participants have a negative attitude towards violence against women during marriage. These results are parallel with the study of Bulut (2015) and Ercan (2009).
There is a statistically significant relationship between physical violence against women and religious worldviews (r=-,163, p<,05). In other words, participants with higher scores on religious worldviews, have a negative attitude towards violence against women during marriage.
There is also a statistically significant difference between the dimensions of violence and gender of the participants. In all dimensions men have higher scores than women. This is consistent with other researches (Baykal, 2008; Bhanot & Senn, 2007; Bulut, 2015; Ercan, 2009; Kula, 2009; Sakallı-Uğurlu & Ulu, 2003; Şenol & Yıldız, 2013).
As a conclusion, with misinterpretation of patriarchal social norms and religious worldviews, men practice violence against women. Related institutions can organize training in this subject and can inform the society. Women are one of the most important members of the society. They are the basis of the family. Therefore for healthy, happy and successful generation, we must stop the violence against women.
 Alice H. Eagly, Sex differences in social behaviour: A social-role interpretation, Hillsdale 1987, pp.9-10.
 Gunilla Krantz ve Claudia Garcia-Moreno, Violence Against Women, 2005, p.818.
 Office of the United Nations, Handbook on effective prosecution responses to violence against women and girls, New York 2014.
 Gunilla Krantz ve Claudia Garcia-Moreno, a.g.e., s.818.
 T.C. Başbakanlık Kadının Statüsü Genel Müdürlüğü, Türkiye’de kadına yönelik aile içi şiddet, s.19.
 Dilek Karal ve Elvan Aydemir, Türkiye’de kadına yönelik şiddet, 2012, s.22.
 Janet L Fanslow, Pauline Gulliver, Robyn Dixon ve Irene Ayallo, Women’s initiation of physical violence against an abusive partneroutside of a violent episode, 2015, s.9.
 Caleb M. Call, Viewing a world of disaster through the eyes of faith: The influence of religious worldviews on community adaptation in the context of disaster-related vulnerability in Indonesia, 2012, s.16.
 Severine Deneulin ve Carole Rakodi, Revisiting Religion: Development studies thirty years on, 2011.
 Meryem Berrin Bulut, Üniversite öğrencilerinin aile içi şiddete yönelik tutumları, 2015.
 Nilüfer Ercan, Evlilikte kadına yönelik fiziksel şiddete ilişkin tutumların yordayıcıları: çelişik duygulu cinsiyetçilik, sistemi meşrulaştırma ve dini yönelim, 2009.
 Türkcan Baykal, Ailede kadına yönelik fiziksel şiddet, bu şiddete ilişkin tutumlar ve kişinin şiddet yaşantısı, 2008.
 Surbhi Bhanot ve Charlene Y. Senn, Attitudes towards violence against women in men of South Asian ancestry: Are acculturation and gender role attitudes important factors? 2007
Aile, şiddet ve din kavramları geçmişi insanın varoluşuna kadar uzanan, insan hayatında varlığını ve etkisini tarihin tüm dönemlerinde koruyan unsurlardır. Kimi zaman problem, kimi zaman çözüm olarak karşımıza çıkan bu kavramlar insanın yeryüzünde varoluş sürecine katkı sağlayan önemli olgulardır. Ele alınış ve algılanış biçimleri, rolleri ve işlevleri, sebep ve sonuçları hatta tanımlanmaları bile toplumdan topluma kültürden kültüre zamana ve mekâna göre değişip dönüşmüştür. Bu araştırma çocukların aile içinde şiddete maruz kalmaları ile onların dindarlık durumları arasındaki ilişkiyi ortaya çıkarmak üzere planlanmıştır. Çok geniş ve karmaşık bir konu olan şiddet; aile içi şiddet başlığı altında aile içinde çocuğa yönelik şiddet olarak sınırlandırılmıştır. Ebeveynlerinden çocuğa doğru olmak üzere; çocukların aile içinde maruz kaldıkları şiddet ile onların dindarlıkları arasındaki ilişkinin ne olduğu ya da olabileceği, çocukların dini yaşantıları ile maruz kaldıkları şiddet durumları arasında bir ilişkinin olup olmadığı, varsa ne yönde bir ilişki olduğu, bunların birbirini nasıl etkilediği sorularına cevap aranmıştır.
Araştırmanın amaçları doğrultusunda oluşturulan hipotezleri test etmek için IBM SPSS 21 (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) paket programı kullanılmıştır. Ölçeklerin güvenilirliğini ölçmek için Cronbach Alpha analizi, ortaya çıkan değişkenler arasındaki ilişkinin yönü ve anlamlılık düzeyini belirlemek için Paersonkorelasyon testi, ilişkinin yapısını belirlemek için ise regresyon analizi yapılmıştır. Karşılaştırmalar için T-testi ve ANOVA testinden yararlanılmıştır. Adana ilinde lise seviyesinde eğitim öğretim gören 13-18 yaş aralığında bulunan 505 öğrencinin katılımıyla tarama yöntemi ve anket tekniği ile gerçekleştirilen araştırma sonucunda çocuğun dindarlığı ile aile içinde şiddete maruz kalması arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir ilişki bulunamamıştır. Ancak çocuğun dindarlığının inanç boyutu ile aile içinde şiddete maruz kalma düzeyi arasında negatif yönlü istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir ilişki bulunmuştur.
Anahtar Kelimeler: Aile içi şiddet, Çocuğa yönelik şiddet, Dindarlık
The Relationship With Violence Against Child In The Family And Child's Religiosity
Family, violance and religion are the concepts which protect their existance, influence and importance in human life at entire periods of history. These concepts are sometimes problems and sometimes they confront us as a solution. Handling and perceptions, roles and functions, causes and effects, or even definitions of it has changed and transformed based on time, space and culture. This study has been designed to reveal the relationship between the religiosity of children and their exposure to domestic violence. Because violence is a very large and complex matter, it is limited as family violence against children under the heading of domestic violence. İncluding the right of children from their parents; children are exposed to violence within the family what is the relationship between their piety or may be? İs there any relationship between children’s piety and their violence experience? İf there is a relationship between them, how they affect each other? answers to these questions were sought.
21 IBM SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) software program was used to test hypotheses generated for the purposes of research. To measure the reliability of the scale Cronbach's alpha internal analysis, Paersoncorelation test to determine the direction and significance of the relationship between the resulting variables, to determine the structure of the relation, regression analysis is done. The T-test and ANOVA were used for comparisons. Research, Adana at the high school level, was conducted with the participation of 505 students studying teaching. Screening method and survey technique was used. Findings of this study, no statistically significant relationship between exposure to violence in the family and the child's religiosity. However, a statistically significant negative relationship between the size of the child's religion of faith and family in the level of violence was found.
Domestic violence in the world and in our country that makes you feel a little more with each passing day existence has become a major bio-psycho-social problems. This problem recently is a current issue that is being discussed sensitively with public institutions and civil society organizations who are on alert. İn the news, written and visual media, social media almost every day, the family violence events, modeled on the increase, violence is caused to become more pronounced and visible than before. On the other hand, this phenomenon frequently used by the media, is welcomed ordinary normalized by people, even has became a pozition recognized in many ways.
In the study, too often in the past years not covered in the media, which is overlooked by a large part of society, domestic violence is a subject that has been covered up where the reflected portion towards child. Throughout history, violence against children, is very common and considered legitimate by society. In recent days, it is reflected in media reports about sexual abuse with children almost every day. Children are particularly exposed even by those obliged to protect themselves from abuse. Even the children who are in institutions representing religious communities even witnessed on the issue of the abused (http 1, 2, 3, 4). Throughout history, violence against children, domestic violence is very common and can be considered legitimate by society. Some parents, accepted by a training and disciplinary mechanism used children to violence, there appears to be fairly widespread in the family. Moreover, parents are a big part of their violent behavior, perceptions are covered by violence. In this regard, it is extremely conscious of the problems encountered and even in educated families. Given that all forms of violence, their children are either witnesses or victims. Children growing up in violent environments, advanced maturity, becoming carriers and practitioners of violence.
Some parents accepted by training and used as a disciplinary mechanism for children to violence, which appears to be quite widespread in the family. Moreover, parents do not perceive a large part of the scope of violence and violent behavior. In this regard, even in extremely conscious and educated family, problems are encountered. Given that all forms of violence children, they are either victims or witnesses. Children growing up in violent environments are becoming carriers and practitioners of violence in the forward run.
Most of the researches recently done, shows that domestic violence has been living much more intense and widespread than supposed. Domestic violence against children, mostly ignored in traditional structure is hidden. From past to present by many families, violence is used as a tool against child discipline and education. Under these circumstances, violence against children, as long as being exaggerated reflection of the middle of the street and law enforcement continues its presence in the family. That take place in the private sphere of family violence against children, can not be too much interference. Children exposed to violence within the family, in general, to accept this situation and they hide from their environment.
In this study;
1. Religiosity levels will vary according to the children 's subjective perception of religiosity.
2. There is a relationship between children 's perception of subjective piety with which they exposed the level of domestic violence.
3. Levels of violence they are exposed to domestic violence increases children 's religiosity level will be reduced.
4. There is a relationship between the children’s sub dimensions of piety level and level of violence exposed within the family.
In this study;
1. it was found a strong positive correlation between Children's subjective perception of piety with piety, statistically significant.
2. A statistically significant relationship between children 's perception of subjective religiosity and their families exposed to domestic violence level was not found.
3. A statistically significant relationship between the level of religiosity with children exposed to domestic violence level could be found.
4. A statistically significant negative relationship between the size of faith children's religiosity and severity of their exposure levels, have been found. However, a statistically significant relationship between morality and the level of violence they are exposed to worship size could not be obtained.
Discussion and Results
Starting point of this research; It is predicted that there is a negative relationship between religion and violence. Depending on the level of religiosity of young people, their level of exposure to domestic violence vary. As young people's religiosity level increases, their exposure level of violence is expected to decrease. Because religion connects people is one of the most important links that governs the society. Religion gives meaning to life, it gives people a sense of identity and belonging, performs structural and cultural functions, provides a worldview of people. (Coşkun, 2003, 15-16)
Religion prevents violent behavior by likening members of community to each other. It reduces differentiations and tensions between members of the community, reducing the potential for conflict. By affecting the individual's feeling and thinking, it also allows the internalization of norms and values is decisive and morality, conscience, sins such as inhibitory control provides the tools car. Creating an internal control mechanism avoids violent behavior. Religion, death, illness, painful conditions such as inequality makes clear bearable. Individuals can fall into the chaotic situation and they can give anarchic reaction to it. Religion prevents individuals to turn violence.
Keywords: Domestic violence, Violence against children, Religiosity
Bugün özellikle Batı Avrupa’daki Müslüman varlığını ele alan sosyolojik çalışmaların literatürdeki en orijinal kavramlarından biri “İslamofobi”dir. Bu kavramın bu ülkeler için ortak çağrışımları nitelemesi Batı Avrupa ülkelerinde yaşayan Müslüman nüfusun entegrasyon, din ve kimlik sorunları ile bu sorunların sosyolojik incelemesinin temelde benzer özellikler taşıyor olmasındandır. Gerçekten de bu gün “İslamofobi” kavramının özellikle Batı Avrupa’yla birlikte kullanılıyor olması bu açıdan dikkat çekicidir.
Teknik bir kavram olarak oldukça yeni olmasına rağmen araştırmalar, bir tutum olarak İslamofobi’in yüzyıllar öncesine dayandığını göstermektedir. Hatta bazı kaynaklarda İslam dininin ilk yıllarında Müslümanlar hakkında yazılan yazı ve aktarılan görüşlerin bu gün bu kavramla doğrudan ilişkilendirildiği görülmektedir. Sosyo-politik bir olgu olarak İslamofobi’yle ilgili en büyük sorun ise bu olgunun Batılı otoriteler tarafından önemsenmemesi ve sıradan bir ayrımcılık sorunu olarak ele alınmasıdır.
Bu çalışma ana hatlarıyla iki bölümden oluşmaktadır. İlk bölümde kısaca Avrupa’daki Müslüman nüfusun güncel kimliği ve İslamofobi’nin kısa tarihi ele alınacak ve ardından SETA’nın “European Islamophobia Report 2015” adlı raporunun Almanya’yı ele alan kısmı değerlendirilecektir.
Anahtar Kelimeler: SETA, Almanya, İslamafobi, Dinsel Şiddet
Examination Of Seta’s Report “Islamophobia In Germany 2015
Today, one of the most original concepts in the literature of especially sociological studies addressing the Muslim presence in Western Europe is "Islamophobia". Since the integration, religion and identity problems of the Muslim population in Western Europe and the sociological examination of these issues have basically similar characteristics, this concept refers to common connotations for these countries.
Although the number of studies on Islamophobia has significantly increased in recent years, they still remain insufficient. However, exempting the studies addressing the subject in a theoretical context leads to a further decrease in the number of these studies. The "European Islamophobia Report 2015" of SETA (Foundation for Political, Economic and Social Research) is therefore of great importance. Whereas the inclusion of a great majority of Europe in the report further increases its importance, the collection of data based on a common plan allows for a comparison among countries.
In the report in which said “Islamophobia or anti-Muslim racism poses a growing threat to the democratic foundations of European constitutions and social peace as well as the coexistence of different cultures throughout Europe” 25 countries have been addressed separately by 37 scientists. The report can be accessed from the website (http://www.islamophobiaeurope.com/reports/2015-reports/)
The report proceeds with introducing the concept of Islamophobia in the context of Germany following a short introduction. The section addressing “Absence of Data Regarding Islamophobia” is followed by the section “Gender and Headscarf”. The report is completed with recommendations for especially the politicians following two brief sections addressing Islamophobia within the contexts of feminism and refugee crisis.
This study does not address the report in all its aspects but rather focuses on some sections of the report in the context of religious violence. Accordingly, the report has been re-categorized on the basis of religious violence.
The most striking aspect of the report is the over-emphasis on the racist organization PEGIDA (Patriotic Europeans Against the Islamisation of the Occident). It appears from the report that nationally well-known PEGIDA is the most popular of the extreme right wingers in Germany and the Islamophobic attitude is reflected by PEGIDA. Besides, it's unknown how many enraged citizens (Wutbürger) other than PEGIDA, there are in Germany.
According to the report the movement came into existence in autumn 2014 and thus falls in line with a longer discourse of anti-Muslim racism. Around 25,000 people took part in the weekly demonstrations in Dresden alone by the Ministry of the Interior. In its anniversary demonstrations in October 2015, again around 20,000 people took to the streets in Dresden. PEGIDA views ‘Muslims’ as more criminal, sexist, homophobic and terrorist than white Germans.
PEGIDA is not just responsible for discursive violence, but also for interpersonal violence. For instance, during PEGIDA demonstrations in Berlin, attacks on people taken to be ‘Muslims’ increased throughout 2015.
According to Ministry of Migration and Refugees (BAMF) around 1 million people were registered as refugees in Germany in 2015. Until October 2015, there have been around 850 attacks on refugee asylum homes and in the third quarter of the year, 13 people have been injured in those attacks. Nevertheless to this date, there is no truly reliable nationwide overview of all attacks against refugees or asylums.
In Germany, the growing anti-Muslim acts become more and more effective day-by-day with provocative publications and exclusionary slogans. This attitude which may be taken as a verbal violence turns into a severe verbal attack along with the public demonstrations. In some demonstrations, particularly the Muslim women are targeted with the sexist images given by blonde voluptuous woman with banners saying “Islamophobic but sexy”, “Maria instead of Sharia” and their bikinis bearing the slogan “Burka Free Zone”.
According to the report in Germany politicians and the media are insensitive to the Islamophobia. As for 2015, Germany still suffers from a nationwide condition of an absence of data concerning Islamophobia. The absence of data on racism became a public debate only in the wake of an attack on a Synagogue in Düsseldorf. One of the first institutions that collect data about Islamophobia in Germany is DITIB (Turkish-Islamic Union for Religious Affairs). DITIB combines data from ‘minor interpellations’, as well as police statistics, as well as reports given to them from their own mosques and their staff.
The ongoing failure to give a name to the Islamophobic attacks should be seen as part of the political insensitivity. Hence, shortly after the attack to a synagogue in Dusseldorf in October 2000, then-Chancellor Gerhard Schröder called for an “uprising of the decent [people]” [“Aufstand der Anständigen”]. However, it is understood from the report that even after this call the Islamophobia is described through an abstract and flexible emphasis such as " other discriminating events" or " right-wing extremism" whereas other social problems such as racism, anti-Semitism, anti-LGBT, anti-Roma (sinti racism) were made clear by giving a name.
The facts that the report mainly relies upon the media data and was not prepared using an original research method seem as the improvable aspects of the report. Besides, the lack of addressing the anti-Islamophobic reactions may be taken as a deficiency of the report.
Keywords: SETA, Germany, Islamophobia, Religious Violence