Bu dünyaya gelen insan, orada ne kadar kalır bilinmez, ama her can sahibi gibi muhakkak bir gün göçüp gider. Zira sözü edilen âlemde günler haftaları, haftalar ayları, aylar yılları kovalar, bir başka deyişle gün geçer ve ömür biter. Neticede insan fâni, Allah bâkîdir.
Aslında ruhun bedenden ayrılması anlamına gelen ölüm, gerçekten anlatılması çok güç olmasına rağmen bu çalışmanın konusu yapılmıştır. Makâlede ölüm, Kur’ân’da ve genel anlamda Arapça’da geçtiği şekliyle ağırlıklı olarak fiiller bazında ele alınmaktadır. Fiiller, kelâmî, fıkhî, psikolojik, sosyolojik, târihî vb. açılardan değil yalnızca dil yönünden değerlendirilmektedir. Amaç, ölümün Kur’ân’da ve genel anlamda da Arapça’da nasıl ifâde edildiğini tespit edilen dil malzemesinden yararlanarak okuyucuya yansıtmaktır.
مَاتَ fiili, ölmek anlamının yanı sıra başka anlamlarda da kullanılır. Örneğin kişi uyuduğunda مَاتَ الرَّجُلُ, ateşin külü soğuyup kordan hiçbir şey kalmadığında مَاتَتِ النَّارُ ve rüzgar dindiğinde مَاتَتِ الرِّيحُ denir.
Ölüm, yaşam çeşitlerine göre çeşitli şekillerde meydana gelir. Örneğin insanda, hayvanlarda ve bitkide bulunan gelişen, büyüyen gücün karşıtı olan şey, hissî kuvvetin yok olması, akıl/düşünce kuvvetinin yok olması yani cehâlet, uyumak, yaşamı bulandıran, kederlendiren hüzün ve korku gibi.
Anahtar Kelimeler: Ölüm, Kur’ân-ı Kerîm, Arap Dili ve Edebiyatı
The Acts Related With Death in The Qur’an and General Perspective in Arabic
Human coming into this world is not known that he/she remains how many years in there, but he/she surely passes away one day like every soul. Because the days pursue the weeks, the weeks follow the months, the months pursue the years; in other words, day passes and life ends. Consequently humankind is mortal, God is eternal.
In fact, although the explanation of the death which means the separation of the soul from the body is really very difficult to describe, the subject of this study is made. In this article the death is discussed predominantly on the basis of verbs as in the Qur’an and Arabic in the general sense. Verbs are only evaluated in terms of language, not the theological and juridical terms. The aim reflects to the reader how the death is being expressed in the Qur’an and in the Arabic language in the general sense taking advantage of determined language material.
In Arabic, the death is the opposite of life, means “The end of life” in the dictionary. Generally, the death which is defined as “lost the source of material life of the person by the separation of soul from the body” takes a very large place in the Qur’ân, the hadith and in Arabic which is language of these two main sources. Here, meant with death passes away under normal circumstances rather than be assaulted, are dying from suffocation before being killed and slaughtered.
These issues discussed in this article are located under two basic titles. The first is the verbs related with death in the Qur’ân and the usage of the verbs of مَاتَ, تُوُفِّيَ and هَلَكَ is given in this section. After, the other verbs concerned with the death in the Qur’ân are discussed in detail. The second is the general view in Arabic. In this part, many verbs related with the matters such as the death or ending carries the person away; it comes or catches to the person; being close to death; to die in young and fresh; to die without disease; to die naturally in the bed; to die suddenly; death of relatives; death in different reasons and ways; the end of the life; death of the person or people and the extinction of generation; the death of person and subsequent situations; the death of animals have been identified and examined.
The verb of مَاتَ is also used in another sense as well as die. For example, it is said when the person sleeps مَاتَ الرَّجُلُ, when the fire’s ashes cooled down and there is nothing from cinder مَاتَتِ النَّارُ and wind does not blow مَاتَتِ الرِّيحُ.
Death occurs in various ways according to the kinds of life. For example, the thing which is opposed to the growing and thriving power in humans, animals and plants, the destruction of sentimental force, the destruction of mind/thought force, i.e. ignorance, sleeping, sadness and fear blurring and desolating the life.
Here we want to present one of the verbs in the article as an example. It has been conflicted in the meaning of the verb تَرَدَّى finding the verse 11 in Sûrah al-Layl ﴿وَمَا يُغْنِي عَنْهُ مَالُهُ إِذَا تَرَدَّى﴾ “And his wealth will not avail himwhen he falls into the pit.”. While some interprets this verb as “to perish by falling into the hell, to fall into the hell, to fall into the fire, to fall into the grave or the hellhole”, the others gives it the meaning of death. It is stated in Câmi‘u’l-bayân that more precise than these two views according to famous meaning ofالتَّرَدِّي is the view reflecting the meaning of “to fall into the fire”. Because, when the meaning of death is meant, it is expressed that anybody died رَدِيَ فُلانٌ and تَرَدَّى has been said too little. However, it is stated in en-Nüket ve’l-‘uyûn that there have been two perspectives about this تَرَدَّى verb. The first is “to fall into the fire”; the second is “to fall into the grave by death”. Thirdly, it is possible the meaning of “to fall into the heresy and sin”.
Some verbs related with death in Arabic by literal meaning are as follows: سَلَّمَ رُوحَهُ (He gave up the ghost.), اِنْتَقَلَ إِلَى جِوَارِ رَبِّهِ (He was transferred into the presence of the Lord.), خَرَّ يَخُرُّ ويَخِرُّ فُلانٌ (He fell.), ذَهَبَ يَذْهَبُ الشخصُ/الإنسانُ (He went.), سَكَتَ يَسْكُتُ الرَّجُلُ (He paused, stopped the movement.), قَضَى دَيْنَهُ (He paid his debt.), لَبَّى نِدَاءَ رَبِّهِ (He was called away by the Lord.), لَعِقَ يَلْعَقُ إِصْبَعَهُ (He licked his finger.) and so on. Again اُغْتُرِضَ (He died young.),اُعْتُبِطَ (He died without disease/certain disease.), تَرِزَ يَتْرَزُ (He died and dried.), مَاتَ حَتْفَ أَنْفِهِ (He died a natural death.),اُفْتُئِتَ (He died suddenly/abruptly.), آمَتْ مِنْ زَوْجِهَا (Her husband died and she was a widow.), هَرْوَزَ الحَيَوَانُ (Animal died). All of these are only a few examples to other verbs attracting notice regarding death.
The outcomes reached at the end of this research are briefly as follows:
The verbs that we face firstly and mostly regarding death in the Qur’ân are no doubt مَاتَ, تُوُفِّيَ and هَلكَ verbs. The first attracted attention from the verbs used in conjunction with مَوْت (death) are phrases being used حَضَرَ, جَاءَ and يَأْتِي verbs to state that the death comes to someone. For example جَاءَ أَحَدَكُمُ الْمَوْتُ (Death came unto one of you.). Also the phrases such as جَاءَتْ سَكْرَةُ الْمَوْتِ بِالْحَقِّ (The stupor of death came in truth.), يُغْشَى عَلَيْهِ مِنَ الْمَوْت (He faints from death.), قَدَّرْنَا بَيْنَكُمُ الْمَوْتَ (We decreed death among you.), خَلَقَ الْمَوْتَ (He has created death.) and قَضَيْنَا عَلَيْهِ الْمَوْتَ (We decreed death for him.) are relevant with مَوْت (death). The other verbs which expresses the coming of death, however, have demonstrated themselves in the form of أَتَانا الْيَقِينُ (Death came to us.), جَاءَ أَمْرُ اللهِ (There issued the Command of Allah (death).) and زُرْتُمُ الْمَقَابِرَ (Eventually you died, finally death came to you.). Also in this context, the verbs which state escaping from death حَادَ and meeting with death and seeing it لَقِيَ and رَأَى do not take account of.
While the situation of closing to death or very close to it in the Qur’ân have been expressed with the phrases such as بَلَغَتِ الْحُلْقُومَ ((The soul of the dying man/person) reached the throat.), بَلَغَتِ التَّرَاقِيَ ((The soul) reached to the collarbone (In its exit).) and اِلْتَفَّتِ السَّاقُ بِالسَّاقِ (One leg is joined to the other.) desperation against death has been stated with the phrases as تَرْجِعُونَهَا (Call back the soul/Restore his soul.), لَقَطَعْنَا مِنْهُ الْوَتِينَ (We would have cut off his heart’s artery.) and فَمَا مِنْكُمْ مِنْ أَحَدٍ عَنْهُ حَاجِزِين (And none of you will save him from Us.).
Although it has been expressed to return to God of angels or servants with death in the phrase of رُدُّوا إِلَى اللهِ, when it is searched other verses related with returning to God or being returned to God, it is seen in the interpretations that those verbs are generally related with after death, the Day of Judgment and hereafter. In respect of the subject of لِقَاءُ اللهِ (meeting with God), though it has given meanings such as until the Day of Judgment or the Day of meeting with God at the Day of Last Judgment, until the day they met with the faction of the punishment in some interpretations to the phrase of إلى يَوْمِ يَلْقَوْنَهُ finding verse 77 in Sûrah al-Tawbah it has given meanings such as until the day they will die and leave the world in other interpretations. There are many verses regrading convergency to God, but these have been accepted as a situation related with hereafter in the sources of interpretation in general.
There are the verbs given other meanings as given meaning of death by commentators as well. For example خَرَّ verb (verse 14 of Sûrah Saba’) etc.
In this research many verbs with verbs mentioned were dealt within the context the verbs related with death in the Qur’ân and have been studied extensively.
The verbs stating the death in Arabic were reviewed from the point of view of literal and other meanings and has emerged semantic field related with death in the following:
He gave up the ghost, he delivered his soul, his spirit was received, his soul reared/rose up, his body became empty from his soul, he gave his last breath, his soul/ spirit went, his life went from his body, he tasted his death,...
He went, went through, broke his connection/network, became lonely, said goodbye to the life, left from the world, he moved from one side of the road to the other side, went through the road of life or the world bridge, walked away, far away, fell off, deflated, became silent, became cold, licked his finger, slept, paid his debt, his shadow disappeared…
He was transferred into the presence of the Lord, he attained the mercy of Allah/Hakk, he retrieved Allah's approval; he met with his Lord; he came into the presence of his Lord; He arrived his Lord; he turned to his Lord…
God took his soul, took him unto Him, put out his breathing, shutted up his voice, destroyed his shade, rolled up his life...
Keywords: Death, The Holy Qur’ân, Arabic Language and Literature
Bu makalenin temel amacı, ‘din psikolojisi’ alanında yüksek lisans yapmayı düşünen ve başta teoloji olmak üzere psikoloji, psikolojik danışmanlık ve rehberlik gibi ilgili alanlarda lisans düzeyinde eğitime sahip genç araştırmacılara yardımcı olmak için adı geçen bilim dalının Türkiye’deki yüksek lisans eğitimi (1949-2015) üzerine genel bir değerlendirme yapmaktır. Öncelikle Türkiye’deki üniversitelerde din psikolojisi alanında açılan yüksek lisans programlarının genel bir değerlendirilmesinin yapıldığı makalede daha sonra, belirlenen üniversite örnekleri (n=13) üzerinden Felsefe ve Din Bilimleri Anabilim Dalı’nda açılan yüksek lisans programlarında yer alan sadece Din Psikolojisi Bilim Dalı’na ait yüksek lisans ders içerikleri bilgilerine yer verilmiştir. Sonuç olarak makalede, örneklem olarak alınan on üç [n=13] Türk devlet üniversitesindeki bu bilim dalında açılan yüksek lisans programlarında, toplam yüz altmış sekiz [n=168] adet ders verildiği görülmüştür. Ayrıca Türkiye’de din psikolojisi bilim dalındaki yüksek lisans programlarının akademik yapılanması göz önünde bulundurulduğunda; lisansüstü akademik eğitim kurumu olan sosyal bilimler enstitülerine bağlı “Din Psikolojisi Bilim Dalı”na ait bağımsız bir lisansüstü programı bulunmadığı ve bu alanın, şemsiye program olan ‘Felsefe ve Din Bilimleri Anabilim Dalı’ altında yer aldığı vurgulanmıştır.-
Anahtar Kelimeler: Din Psikolojisi, Bilim Tarihi, Üniversite, Yüksek Lisans, Tez
Evaluatıons on The Postgraduate Courses (1949-2015) in The Psychology of Religion in Turkey - I
The field of psychology of religion encompasses scientific researches on religious and non-religious individuals as well as on the topics of faith and rituals in religious traditions by using psychological methodology and interpretive approaches. Thus, the discipline attempts to define and detail the origins of religious faith and behaviours of religious individuals in a correct and proper manner. Although the Psychology of Religion only appeared as an institutionalised discipline in the late 19th century, it has a long history that goes back centuries. The discipline includes two main fields of inquiry, namely theology and psychology. It is safe to assume that, if the dialogue and interaction between psychology and theology in question continues to develop, this discipline will gradually gain a firmer position among other sciences (Koç, 2012: 327).
This article aims to introduce, in brief, the postgraduate courses on the ‘Psychology of Religion’ (1949-2015) in Turkey in order to assist young researchers, intending to study for master degree in the Psychology of Religion and/ or obtaining an undergraduate degree mainly in theology and in the other relevant majors such as psychology and psychological counselling and guidance.
This article firstly provides an overall assessment on master degree programmes on the Psychology of Religion in Turkish universities and secondly gives information about the course contents, particularly regarding to Psychology of Religion in the master programmes in the Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies, based on the university samples (n=13).
Method and Data Collection
It is used qualitative design using literature survey methodology in the article. Comparing to the quantitative design, the qualitative approaches provide in-depth information, insights and understandings regarding the research topics.
The sample of the study consists of only thirteen universities in Turkey which are in alphabetical order: (i)-Ankara University, (ii)-Atatürk University, (iii)-Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, (iv)-Çukurova University, (v)-Dokuz Eylül University, (vi)-Erciyes University, (vii)-Hitit University, (viii)-Marmara University, (ix)-Ondokuz Mayıs University, (x)-Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University, (xi)-Sakarya University, (xii)-Süleyman Demirel University, (xiii)-Uludağ University”.
As a source of information about the postgraduate courses on the ‘Psychology of Religion’ (1949-2015) in Turkey, (a) the official websites of the universities, (b) telephone interviews with religious psychologists as an academic staff, still working at these universities, and (c) e-mail correspondence are used in the article.
In order to realize this purpose, a survey is performed among these universities under the basis of these master degree programmes on the Psychology of Religion in Turkey. A number of the tables related to the course contents and their credits in these universities are created by the researcher. Additionally, thirteen different tables, providing semester periods and course codes as well as course types (compulsory or elective) and including the total course period are created and finally the master degree programmes on the Psychology of Religion in Turkey covering the years between 1949 and 2015 are scanned by the researcher.
It is ultimately determined that according to university samples [n=13], there are a total of one hundred and sixty-eight courses [n=168] in the postgraduate programme of Turkish state universities. Furthermore, it is emphasized that considering the academic structure of postgraduate programmes on the Psychology of Religion in Turkey, there is no particular master programme on the Psychology of Religion, depending on Institute of Social Science which is the institution of the postgraduate academic education, but it is taught under master programme on ‘Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies’ which is an umbrella programme.
Furthermore, as major title place on the postgraduate diplomas of the students, successfully defending their theses which are prepared on the specific topic of the Psychology of Religion, "Philosophy and Religious Studies" has been determined to be written instead of "Psychology of Religion". This can be evaluated as a mandatory result of formal international accreditation.
As a result of the survey findings, it is seen that state universities which provide the most detailed and proper information about education curriculum on their internet portal in Turkey are Uludağ University and Dokuz Eylül University.
It has been opened approximately six [n = 6] elective courses from each branch in each semester in the umbrella master programs under the title of Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies. Therefore, besides the compulsory courses in the semester, there are 6 elective courses that the students can choose each semester, particularly in the branch of Psychology of Religion.
Although application of 'one-year preparatory/foundational course' for the candidates who have a different bachelor's degree from Theology or Psychology is foreseen in the formal process of Turkish education system, there is no master program, applying this kind of course in practical terms under the Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies as an umbrella programme in Turkey.
Keywords: Psychology of Religion, History of Science, University, Master Degree, Dissertation
Harflerin mahreçleri ve sıfatları konusu, hicri ilk dönem dilbilimcilerin üzerinde durdukları ve işledikleri konuların başında gelmektedir.
Erken dönem filologlarından Halil b. Ahmed (ö.175/791), Sâmî alfabelerde öteden beri yaygın olan ‘ebced’ tertibini, Nasr b. Âsım el-Leysi (ö.89/708) ve Yahya b. Ya’mer (ö.129/746) tarafından yapılan harflerin tertip sistemini kabul etmemiş, kendisi çıkış yerlerini esas alarak harfleri, mahreçlerine göre bir sıraya koymuştur. Yine Halil b. Ahmed’in öğrencisi Sibeveyh (ö.180/796) de harfleri mahreç sırasına göre sıralamıştır. Bu iki dil otoritesi kendilerinden sonra gelen el-Müberred (ö.286/900), İbn Düreyd (ö.321/933) ve İbn Cinnî ( ö.392/1002) gibi âlimleri etkilemiştir. Bu filologlar harflerin sıfatları konusunu da müstakil bölüm halinde ele almışlardır. Tarihsel olarak sonradan gelen dilbilimcilerinin kendilerinden önceki filologlardan etkilendikleri görülmekle birlikte bizzat her dilbilimci orijinal değerlendirmelerde bulunmuştur.
Tecvide dair eserlerin yazılmaya başlandığı V. Asır ve sonrasında telif edilen eserlerde harflerin mahreçleri ve sıfatları konusu ilk dönem dilbilimcilerinin yorumları istikametinde gelişme göstermiştir. Bu konuların tecvidin asıl konusunu teşkil ettiği bir gerçektir. Tecvide dair orta ve son dönemde kaleme alınan eserlerde işlenen harflerin sıfatları ve adedi konusunun ilk dönem filologlarının tespitine çok yakın olduğunu söyleyebiliriz.
Anahtar Kelimeler: Ses, harf, mahreç, Halil b. Ahmed, Sibeveyh, el-Müberred
An Evaluation of The Pronouncing-Places and Features of Letters From The Perspective of Arab Philologists of The First Four Centuries After The Hijrah
The subject of the uttering-places and features of the Arabic letters is one of the foremost topics that the first century Arabic philologists after the Hijrah addressed. Of the early period philologists, Khalīl bin Aḥmad (d. 175/791), Sībawayh (d. 180/796) and, following them, Ibn Duraid (d. 321/933) and Ibn Jinnī (d. 392/1002) never failed to address the subject of the uttering-places and features of the Arabic letters in their books. Though the later philologists were influenced by the earlier ones, every philologist made his own original contributions.
Sībawayh, a pupil of Khalīl bin Aḥmad, further advanced his teacher’s studies on this topic. He first ascertained the pronouncing-places of letters. For him, the pronouncing-places number sixteen. Sibawayh made the hierarchy of letters in a way different from his teacher Khalīl bin Aḥmad’s by putting the letters hā’ and hamzah in the bottom of the throat. Abū ‘Uthmān al-Māzinī also examined the pronouncing-places and properties of letters, saying that every letter has a distinct pronouncing-place and thus every letter has a different pronouncing-place, thus forming different vocalization and speech. If the pronouncing-places of letters were the same, it would be impossible for man to speak. Therefore, the different pronouncing-places of letters and their different vocalization are given by God only to the human beings.
Al-Mubarrad (d. 286/900), one of the leading philologists of the third century after Hijraj, discusses the pronouncing-places and properties of letters in his al-Muqtaḍab. After Sībawayh in his al-Kitāb, al-Mubarrad discussed in detail the pronouncing-places and properties of letters as well as those letters that are subject to elision and those that are not, etc. But he did not address these topics as systematically as did Sībawayh in his al-Kitāb. But al-Mubarrad, making original remarks, is a philologist of different approaches and a wide perspective. His remarks on the properties of letters shed a great deal of light for the subsequent philologists.
Ibn Duraid (d. 321/933) is another philologist who focused on the pronouncing-places and properties of letters. In the opening chapter of the first volume of his book Jamharat al-Lughah, the earliest alphabetically ordered Arabic lexicon, he first discussed the issue of the properties of letters and then their pronouncing-places. Though he cites his own views, he supports his views by quoting the grammarians. He dealt with the subject of the properties of letters unsystematically, digressing into the topic of the pronouncing-places of letters when discussing the properties of letters and digressing into the latter when discussing the former.
In the fourth century, we see Azharī (d. 370/980) as an influential philologist. He discussed the topic of the pronouncing-places and properties of letters in the first volume of his Tahdhīb al-Lughah, which he composed in the last days of his life. He adopted the method followed by Khalīl bin Aḥmad in his Kitāb al-‘Ayn, tracing most of his views back to Khalīl. He mentioned Khalīl’s views in his book more than his own. Ibn Jinnī, one of the leading philologists of the fourth century, discussed the pronouncing-places and properties of letters in a systematic and clear way and in distinct chapters. He examined this topic in his Sirru Ṣinā‘at al-I‘rāb, discussing there at length the difference between the alif and the hamzah. He also drew upon Sībawayh’s views. He also counts the number of the pronouncing-places of letters sixteen as did Sībawayh. This work, examining the Arabic phonetic, is one of the reference books for the scholars of the Tajwīd and Arabic grammar. All of these philologists were considerably influenced by Khalīl bin Aḥmad, because he is an authoritative scholar on this topic.
The linguistic authorities covered a great distance in ascertaining the pronouncing-organs and their functions. These studies, dating back to the years prior to the corruption of the purity of Arabic, have never lost their importance. Another point of distinction for Khalīl bin Aḥmad is that he discovered that the letters of madd (intonation) also have pronouncing-places and they are supposed (muqaddar) pronouncing-places.
The Arabic philologists followed a systematic way in discussing the properties of letters. They first discussed the contradictory properties and then the non-contradictory ones. They employed different terms in discussing the properties. For instance, Sībawayh and Ibn Jinnī referred to the property of qalqalah with the term mushrabah. They used the term khafā’ instead of makhfūfah. If we examine the chapters of the works on the pronouncing-places and properties of letters that are composed in the later periods, we see that they reiterate the same information as occurred in the earlier ones, making very little additions.
In the fifth century after the Hijrah when the books of Tajwīd started being composed as well as in the following centuries, the subject of the pronouncing-places and features of letters tended to develop in the direction of the comments by the earlier philologists. It is a fact that this topic makes up the real subject of Tajwīd.
Keywords: Sound, Khalil b. Aḥmad, Letter, Pronouncing-places, al-Mubarrad
İdealizm, madde ve ruh düşünce tarihindeki tartışmaların odağında yer alan kavramlardır. Özellikle madde ve ruhtan birini dışarıda tutarak felsefe tarihini anlayabilme imkânımız yoktur. Filozoflardan bahsederken, zaman zaman onları materyalist ya da spiritualist şeklinde kategorize ederiz. Bu kategorizasyon, filozofun düşünce sistematiğini, varlık tasavvurunu ve problemlere bakışını yansıtır. Nurettin Topçu’nun varlık, din, sanat, millet ve siyaset konusundaki görüşlerini dikkate aldığımızda onun fikir örgüsünü oluşturan kavramların bütününde ruhçu söylemin içkinliği karşımıza çıkar. Ruhçu bir idealizm savunusu yapan Topçu, ele aldığı meseleleri bir felsefeci/filozof kimliği ile analiz edip kritik etmektedir. Düşüncesindeki ruhçu içkinliğe rağmen o, immateryalist bir düşünür de değildir; maddenin varlığı ile ruhun gerçekliğini bir arada düşündüğünden dolayı onu düalist olarak da görmek mümkündür. Bütün bunları göz önünde bulundurarak konuyu ele alıp tartışmaya çalıştık.
Anahtar Kelimeler: Madde, Ruh, İdealizm, Materyalizm ve Din
Idealism, material and soul are three concepts on the focus of discussions in the history of thought. It is difficult to maintain a discussion in the history of philosophy by leaving out either the material or the soul in particular. When we talk about philosophers, we categorize them as materialists or spiritualists from time to time. This categorization contains a reference to the philosopher’s ontology and epistemology.
Idealism in its general sense is the attitude of holding the mind’s design, ideas and ideals right against the material, coarse reality and of attributing them a major role and position within the spectrum of human values. Philosophically, it is a doctrine which is right opposite to skepticism, positivism and atheism, which prioritizes human reality or spirituality, which claims that the world or reality essentially exists as a spirit, and that abstraction and laws are more fundamental realities than sensory things and which is against materialism more than realism.
Sent abroad as a researcher in the first years of the republic, Nurettin Topçu wrote a dissertation titled Conformisme et Révolte (Conformity and Revolt) as part of his doctorate studies in the field of philosophy in Sorbonne. This was translated into Turkish titled Ethics of Revolt. He grasped the notion of revolt in a paradoxical way throughout his forty-five-year literary life from this book, which was his first work, until the last line of his last writing. Revolt is one of the basic concepts of his philosophy; since he also possessed a philosophy of will peculiar to himself, the will that he had was “a will of revolt”.
In his thoughts, Nurettin Topcu also allocated a special place for the concept of motion which cannot be considered independently of revolt and defined his philosophy as “a philosophy of motion”. Topcu is a proponent of motion, with his background capitalizing on M. Blondel’s sentence: “Motion is a combination of God and human.” This sentence underlies the comprehension of Ethics of Revolt.
Nurettin Topcu is an idealist thinker with his thoughts and actions. According to Topcu, idealism always attains victory at the hands of a real idealist and the thing that is most abhorred by idealism is economy; a great idealist is the one that has turned sacrifice into ecstasy and worship. In his opinion, an ideal is a motion of soul and requires soul energy which will become love in the end; the opposite of this idea, on the other hand, is enmity against all values revealed by the soul, which is enmity against ideals.
According to Topcu, idealism is not sufficing with a reality that is in contact with finite and limited existence but it is aiming at eternity after extending to many realities within the framework of plans put on top of each other. According to Topcu, although religion is entirely such an ideal system, so-called man of religion reduced it to a narrowest and sterile realism and this deficient realism is struggling with contradictions. Indeed, the feeling of reality is cooperation of our intellect with our capabilities of vision, hearing, smell, taste, and touch.
We see such an example of realism in Antique Greek for the first time; born of the love for nature, attaining the secrets of natural forces, juxtaposing the human’s capabilities and forces with the nature, the Greek civilization eventually raised humanity up to the final step of progress in the world of spiritual values and to metaphysics and morality. Having its inception largely in realism, the Greek philosophy was given by Christianity a soul-oriented idealism in the following stage. The western thought was shaped by this idealism until the eighteenth century. Topcu thinks that the idealism in Islam developed within the meaning of verses descending during the years when the Prophet Muhammad lived in Mecca prior to the hegira (emigration), that a thriving realism born with a desire to become a perfect man of the earth in line with the practical requirements of life stopped the spirit of life from motion in later centuries and subjected it to interests and accomplishments and that the demise of the Islamic world within itself occurred as a result of this realism. Thus, the love felt towards the human was gradually replaced by the love for things. In Topcu’s opinion, such admiration for things coarsens the human and the human being a slave to things causes a situation that is even more coarse and primitive than a human being a slave to another human. Being a slave to a human reveals an oppressed and suffering but a tender human soul and life of morality.
It is necessary to correctly understand what Topcu understands from material and soul in order to accurately analyze the idea of Anatolianism in Topcu, his conceptualization of a nation and nationality, his terminology of politics that we will incorporate into the notions of socialism and authoritarian administration, his interpretation/criticism of religiousness and educational system. Topcu is against all reflections of materialism in all areas of life. In particular, he vehemently criticized conceptualization of religion in separation from the soul and as a form of belief consisting only of formality and saw this as a positivist approach. It is necessary to repeatedly think about this interpretation of Topcu today, as well. Indeed, religiousness and positivism are not concepts that can coexist. However, as pointed out by Topcu, if it is attempted to understand religion only with rituals and formality, this will not go beyond a positivist approach since it will eventually be positivistic to move from the objective and factual reality of worship.
His emphasis on the unity of material and soul in spite of his view of the soul before the matter reveals that he categorically has a dualist understanding. Objecting to materialism in his system of thoughts in general, Topcu is not an immaterialist in the sense of a Berkeleyist. We think that this understanding appears to have formed the general framework of Topcu’s ideas.
Having reflected his ideas onto all areas of his life, Topcu is a person who should be repeatedly dealt with as an actionist thinker, a philosopher of ethics full of a will of revolt, a defender of an educational system that focuses on the soul.
Keywords: Substance, Spirit, Idealism, Materialism and Religion
Modern düşüncenin ortaya çıkışında hangi unsurların etkin olduğu meselesi, felsefe tarihindeki önemli tartışma konularından birisidir. Bununla ilgili olarak felsefi, siyasi, sosyal, ekonomik vb. nedenler üzerinde durulmuştur. Her ne kadar modern düşünce, ortaya koyduğu epistemolojik iddialar itibariyle genel olarak kendinden öncesini yok sayan bir yaklaşım içerisinde olsa da, belirtmek gerekir ki, netice itibariyle “modern”, Ortaçağ’ın bir sonucudur ve bahsedilen bütün etkenler, bu dönemde yaşanmış bir takım gelişmelerden kaynaklanmıştır. Bu durumun temel teolojik iddialar bağlamında Tanrı anlayışı özellikle de Tanrı’nın varlığı ve bilinebilirliği konusunda belirginleştiği söylenebilir.
Bu çalışma, felsefe tarihinde birbirinden oldukça farklı bu iki dönem arasında ard ardalık ilişkisini aşan bir kaynaklık ilişkisinin bulunup bulunmadığı tartışmasını gündeme getirmeyi amaçlamaktadır. Burada bu tartışmayı, Skolastik dönemin en etkili filozoflarından birisi olan Duns Scotus’un felsefi ve teolojik düşünceleriyle Modern düşünceyi başlatmış olduğu iddiası üzerinden, onun teolojik görüşlerinin merkezinde bulunan Tanrı anlayışı bağlamında değerlendirmeye çalıştık.
Anahtar Kelimeler: Tanrı, metafizik, nedensellik, varlık ve modern düşünce
The problem of which factors played an effective role in the emergence of modern thinking has been a significant debate in the history of philosophy. In this regard, it has been focused on philosophical, political, economic and similar causes. Although modern thinking usually tends to deny what preceded it through its epistemological claims it has put forward, it must be noted that “the modern” is consequently an outcome of Medieval Age, and all these factors stem from some developments that took place during this time period. It can be argued that this became more salient regarding perception of God, and particularly the existence and knowledge of God in the context of basic theological claims.
It can be said that the first reaction of medieval Christian West upon coming into contact with the Classical Ancient Greek texts was negative overall. Particularly, the extremely cautious attitude towards Aristotle’s philosophy was geared towards protecting the Christian faith against the relatively destructive effect of this philosophy in terms of religious beliefs. This attitude continued to exist during a significant part of the Patristic period, yet the subsequent struggle to create a systematic structure against opposing or rival worldviews through building a Christian metaphysics and thus reformulating Christian opinion on issues such as universe and humanity gave birth to the need of producing a new theology. It can be argued that Thomism came as a result of such a struggle. The adoption of Thomistic tradition as official doctrine when it prevailed along with Scholastic philosophy deeply affected Christian thought for a long time, but also resulted in some criticism. Some of it was that this thought tradition rendered Christian faith too theoretic or incomprehensible and that it removed the importance of some underlying Christian principles such as personal piety and humble lifestyle. Members of Franciscan school are among the ones who leveled criticism coming up with some new arguments against Thomistic philosophy. According to the Franciscans who emphasized a religious understanding based on practicality, emotions, mysticism, personality and worship by bringing Plato’s and St. Augustine’s philosophy to the attention again, the will is more important than reason, and the ethical and religious contents of Christianity are more important than the theoretical teachings of Jesus. Thus, Duns Scotus, as a leading figure of Scholastic period Franciscanism, spearheaded the opposition within the church with his criticism against Thomism which was then the central doctrine of the church, and rebelled against the Scholastic philosophy by opposing to coexistence of Christian faith with Aristotelianism.
Scotus explains the relationship between reason and revelation in the context of will. He argues that the law is the fruit of God’s will, totally independent from all orders and obligations. God Himself is the will and the will is the creator of everything. The holy will encompasses everything, and there is nothing that determines or restricts it. According to Scotus, God has absolute power and uses His power to create this world where a certain order exists. The existence of the world is not a necessity. It exists due to God’s creative and regulative power. Thus, we can point out a structure based on the incomprehensibility of God and sole godly order in the universe rather than a salvation doctrine necessarily existing between God-Jesus and humans. In this sense, an epistemological gap occurs in Scotus philosophy in the relationship between the reason and revelation, and Scotus tries to overcome this problem through godly will. Placing godly freedom in the center of theology to such an extent would mean that it is now in a station which could not be reached through reason. This would accelerate the break between practical knowledge and theoretical knowledge particularly in God-human relationship in philosophical thought process, and lead to the conclusion that the object suitable for human mind can only be known on the basis of sensory perception. It is clear that Scotus separated the physical and metaphysical dominions in the universe through the concept of existence, and argued that the former cannot be known through the means of reason, while the latter can be explored through experimental methods, and thus brought about ideas which are reminiscent of the epistemological view dominant in the modern thought. Having moved theology out of rational domain in the matter of reason-revelation relationship, Scotus expanded the field of the philosophy which contained the knowledge gained by natural reason, and paved the way for the modern thought in this sense. Although Scotus protested the coexistence of Christianity with Aristotelianism and opposed to the Scholastic system by asserting that belief is improvable and argued that definite and absolute truth cannot be naturally known without a special illumination of the uncreated light, he accepted the authority of reason and expressed that the Holy Scripture complies with the reason. Indeed, Scotus believed that searching or trying to understand the matters of faith did not amount to loss of belief virtues with regard to the faithful. Thus, the theologians need to adopt a critical approach rather than an overprotective attitude towards their belief.
Nevertheless, arguing that Scotus’ philosophy is the founder of modern philosophy appears to be quite an assertive approach. Undoubtedly, it can be said that modern thought is an outcome and product of medieval philosophy. Yet, besides Scotus, the effect of Islamic scholars such as Avicenna, Averroes and Western philosophers such as Roger Bacon, Bonaventure, William of Ockham and Henry of Ghent cannot be ignored.
The present study attempts to bring into question the discussion whether there is a source relationship between these two quite different ages (Medieval-Modern) in the history of philosophy, going beyond the relationship of successiveness. We tried to evaluate this discussion through the claim that Duns Scotus, one of the most influential philosophers of the Scholastic age, started the Modern thinking by his philosophical and theological views, focusing on his perception of God which lies at the heart of his theological views.
Keywords: God, Metaphysics, Causality, Existence, and Modern Thinking
İnsanı ve toplumu anlamayı kendisine hedef edinen sosyoloji, insanoğlunun son birkaç asra kadar karşılaşmadığı fakat modern çağla birlikle yüzleşmek zorunda kaldığı yeni durumu ve süreçleri anlamamızı kolaylaştıran bir disiplindir. Modernite ve sekülerleşme tecrübeleriyle birlikte geleneksel dönemlerde “olduğu gibi kabul edilen” pek çok şey sorguya tabi tutulmuş, hemen her şeyde olduğu gibi dini anlayışlarda da tercihlerin hakim olduğu çoğulcu bir dünya anlayışı ortaya çıkmıştır. Kurucu sosyologların modern dönemlerde neredeyse hiç alan açmadığı din, onların öngörülerinin aksine yeni sahalar bulmuş, sosyoloji ve dinin kavşak noktası olan din sosyolojisi, pek çok düşünürün önemli görüşler ortaya attığı bir disiplin haline gelmiştir. Lutheryan bir teolog olma amacıyla başladığı üniversite yılları ve ilk akademik çalışmaları, ilerleyen yıllarda din sosyolojisine doğru evrilen Peter Berger, geçirmiş olduğu entelektüel dönüşümü ve yazmış olduğu onlarca eseriyle bu alana hatırı sayılır katkılarda bulunan sosyologların başında gelmektedir. Berger’in doğup büyüdüğü yerlerden öğrenim yıllarına, fikri anlamda beslendiği kaynaklar ve kişilerden akademik serüvenine dair pek çok unsuru bir araya getirmeye çalışan bu makale, yaşam öyküsü ve sosyolojik görüşleri ışığında onun entelektüel bir portresini sunmayı amaçlamaktadır.
Anahtar Kelimeler: P. Berger, Teoloji, Sosyoloji, Din Sosyolojisi, Sekülerleşme
As a Sociologist of Religion The Intellectual Portrait of Peter L. Berger
The sociology, which aims to understand the human and society, is a discipline that makes easier to understand new situation and the process which people have to face in the modern age. Many components accepted as “taken for granted” in the traditional period are investigated with the experiences of modernization and secularization. The choices are given importance in religious understandings and a pluralist understanding of world emerged. Whereas the founder sociologists think that the religion will disappear in the modern period, it hasn’t come true and the sociology of religion, as a junction point with religion and sociology, began to enhance its importance in the modern age. In his university years and first academic career, Berger aimed to be a well-known Lutheran theologian; but in the next years he directed his studies to the field of sociology of religion. Peter Berger is one of the most important sociologists of religion with his intellectual transformation and tens of books. In this paper, we’ll try to trace the places he grew in, his school years, intellectual sources / persons he benefited and his academic adventure. So, in this paper we purpose to present his intellectual portrait in the light of his biography and main arguments.
Even though he is from Viennese, he was born in Trieste, Italy on March 17, 1929 because he had some relatives of his mother there. He moved to US with his family via Palestine. He stayed in Palestine for eight years and joined many courses related to Presbyterian and Anglican churches. He studied on different churches of Christianity and then decided to adopt Lutheranism. In 1946 he moved to New York with his family. Because he decided to be a well-known Lutheran theologian, he enrolled to the department of theology in Wagner College. After his graduation, he noticed that it is necessary for him to understand American society to be a famous theologian in the future, so he enrolled to the department of sociology in New School for Social Research for master. In these years, he met Thomas Luckmann and they became very close friends and co-writers. Berger and Luckmann were affected by his professors Albert Solomon, Carl Mayer and especially Alfred Schutz. Because Berger liked very much to interest in the human and society, he certainly decided to go forward with sociology. He finished his Phd. dissertation in 1952 entitled “The Baha’i Movement: A Contribution to the Sociology of Religion”. This book includes Berger’s first deep sociological analyses related to the sociology of religion. From 1956 to 1963 he studied as an academician at Women’s College of the University of North Carolina and Hartford Theological Seminary. Then he began to study in New School as an association professor in 1963. This date is very important for Berger. Because from now on he has written many important papers and books which have made Berger a very famous sociologist at worldwide.
He wrote a book entitled Invitation to Sociology (1963) which gained a reputation in the field of sociology. This book was one of the best-selling books written by a sociologist until that day and it was translated to many languages. He wrote also one of the famous books Social Construction of Reality (1966) with his best colleague Thomas Luckmann. They developed a phenomenological perspective in the sociology of knowledge with inspiration from their professor Alfred Schutz. They produced a dialectical cycle which includes three phases: externalization, objectivation, and internalization. They summarized this cycle as “society is a human product, society is an objective reality, and man is a social product.”
Peter Berger, is a remarkable thinker of the present day, said that the religion will disappear in the future because he was an advocate of the theory of secularization at the first career years. However, especially after 1990s, he has needed to refresh his sociological opinions because of the spiritual situation at the world and has produced contrary opinions. When we investigate the reasons of his transformation, we see that Berger himself explains shortly that this is a journey of change, not a change of mentality. According to him, modernity hasn’t invariably caused the secularization but has caused pluralism, which has destroyed uniformity of the conventional life and has obligated people to choose. Berger, the sociologist of modernity, has tried to explain the modern world in the frame of modernity, secularity, and pluralism. He began to study at Rutgers University as a professor in 1970. In these years he wrote many important books like The Homeless Mind: Modernisation and Consciousness (1973), Pyramids of Sacrifice (1974), Facing up to Modernity (1977).
In 1981 he began to study at Boston University which is a more famous university. He founded The Institute for the Study of Economic Culture which examines the relationship between economic development and socio-cultural change in Boston University with his collaborators in 1985. He went on writing and published many books: Modernity, Pluralism and the Crisis of Meaning (with Thomas Luckmann, 1995), The Desecularization of the World: Resurgent Religion and World Politics (editor, 1999), Questions of Faith: A Skeptical Affirmation of Christianity (2003), Religious America, Secular Europe? (with Grace Davie and Effie Fokas, 2008), In Praise of Doubt: How to Have Convictions without Becoming a Fanatic (with Anton Zijderveld, 2010), Adventures of an Accidental Sociologist -How to Explain the World Without Becoming a Bore- (2011), The Many Altars of Modernity: Towards a Paradigm for Religion in a Pluralist Age (2014). As a result Berger has made remarkable contribution to the sociology and sociology of religion and he is going on to write weekly in American Interest about America, Europe, Middle East and also Turkey with many important thinkers like Mead and Fukuyama.
Keywords: P. Berger, Theology, Sociology, Sociology of Religion, Secularization
Hastalara yönelik manevi destekler (Spritual Care/Seelsorge) yaklaşık kırk yıldır Avrupa ve Amerika hastanelerinde profesyonel olarak uygulanmaktadır. Bu konuda artan bir ilgi söz konusudur. Literatürde de konuyla ilgili akademik makaleler yayınlanmış ve yayınlanmaya devam etmektedir. Ancak bu uygulamaların Müslüman hastalar için uyarlanmasında hem batı ülkelerinde hem Müslüman ülkelerde problemlerle karşılaşılmıştır. Özellikle yetişmiş eleman ve literatür açısından eksiklikler tespit edilmiştir. Hz. Peygamber’in hastalara vermiş olduğu manevi destekler, binlerce rivayetin içinde saklı birer hazine gibidir. Ancak bu nebevî uygulamaların derlenmesi, yorumlanıp güncel manada anlamlandırılması önem arz etmektedir. Bu çalışmada Hz. Peygamber’in hastalara yönelik manevi destek olarak nitelendirilebilecek uygulamaları tespit edilmeye çalışılacak, bu bağlamda hastanelerde hastalara yönelik manevi destek vermekle görevli olanlara, uygulamada dinî referans olarak kullanabilecekleri hadisler ön plana çıkarılacaktır.
Anahtar Kelimeler: Manevi Destek, Hasta, Hastane, Şifa, Hadis
The Prophet Muhammed’s Approach To Patient in The Context of Spiritual Support
Spiritual care towards the patients has been professionally applied in American and European hospitals for almost forty years. There is an increasing interest in this subject. Academic articles have been published until now on the issue, and they still continue being published in the literature. However, problems have been confronted in the adaptation of these applications to Muslim patients in both Western countries and Muslim countries. Some drawbacks have been determined especially in terms of qualified personnel and literature. The spiritual care given by the Prophet Muhammad are like a hidden treasure inside thousands of reports. Nevertheless, the compilation, interpretation and explanation in a current way of the Prophet’s these applications are of capital importance. In this study, the Prophet’s applications, which can be considered as spiritual care, are tried to be determined and within this context, some hadith that can be used as religious reference during application will be brought into the forefront for those who are in charge of spiritual care in hospitals.
I studied on this article by reviewing a part of my doctorate thesis which I completed in 2015 called “Spiritual Care for Patients in Hadith”. In the mentioned thesis, I researched the inculcation and the consolation for the patients by basing on today’s patient psychology and the issues that make the patients worried and make them live stress and depression. Moreover, the determination of what methods the Prophet used in the approach to the patients and of his actual and verbal attitude in the visit of patients are of the aims of this the thesis. The searching of whether the hadith can be applied in today’s world as well as analyzing their variants, contexts, validity levels and the interpretations in their exegesis, and finding out their relations to the Islamic works of the later periods on this issue and determination of whether there is a relation of these hadith to Islamic moral philosophy are also among the aims of this study. The problem of how it can be determined whether a patient recovered spiritually, which is one of the most significant deadlocks of Psychology and Psychiatry, is tried to be answered in this thesis. By taking applications in some hospitals into consideration, the solutions which were suggested by the Prophets for the problems, against which the modern medicine is incapable, centuries ago are mentioned, and moving from the patients’ psychology the consolations presented by the hadith into the spiritual worlds of the patients are investigated and the Prophet’s spiritual care for the patients are systematically tried to be determined.
In this article, the spiritual care of the Prophet towards the patients will be handled, and his spiritual care about belief, pray and other issues will be handled in other studies. When the hadith in this section are viewed, it will be seen that the “psychological” spiritual care the Prophet applied to the patients has three stages. In the first stage, he resolved the psychological condition of his interlocutor by listening. In the second stage, in accordance with the patient’s psychological condition, he gave the patient moral support and in the third stage, he directed the patient to a new point of view. Within this context, in the second chapter of this study, which is after the introduction chapter, the Prophet’s method of listening and understanding the patients will be examined. In the third chapter, his consolation and motivating to the patients will be examined and in the fourth chapter his applications about directing the patients will be examined. In the final chapter a general evaluation will be made.
About the listening method of the Prophet, the listening and understanding the patients applications, which are widely used in today’s psychotherapies, have been stressed with the report of his regular visit to Sa’d b. Muaz, who is one of his companions, and his listening to Sa’d. The reports, which are told within this topic, not only show the importance of listening the patients in Hadith, but also stress the necessity of understanding the mind and opinions of the patient before giving him spiritual care along with developing a plan and program according to it.
Under the topic, the Prophet’s consolation and moral support to the patients, the reports telling his inculcation with soft words and his approach in accordance with their psychological conditions have been assessed. The Prophet gave capital importance to the speaking of soft words when together with patients and showed that in his actual applications. He perseveringly stressed that this issue not be taken lightly by saying that these soft words are like prayers. The research of this issue from Ibn Sina to today’s world under special topics increase the priority of the reports in terms of spiritual care.
Under the topic, the Prophet’s directing the patients, the subject of the Prophet’s changing the opinion of the patients towards the troubles and calamities has been assessed. Under the light of the reports mentioned under this topic, the patient assigns a meaning to the troubles and calamities he experienced and by this way he feels psychologically relaxed. Hereby, he finds a moral support with the good tidings that the religion he believes in gives to him. Another subtopic under this topic is the reminding of greater troubles and calamities to the patients. It is reported in Quran and Hadith by telling the parables of the people who previously experienced greater troubles that there is an example and consolation for those who experience similar troubles. Another method the Prophet applied is to direct the patients to information. As a person’s being knowledgeable about not only himself, but also the universe and the actual existence would ease the understanding of the issues that are experienced, it would also make the person hold cheap the troubles he lives. For this reason, the Prophet’s “asking for the ultimate truth to make himself underestimate the troubles” confronts us as a significant information in terms of moral support. Another topic is to encourage patients to take precautions and consider the reasons. Taking precautions in terms of spiritual care should be regarded as the saving of both spiritual balance and physical health. The advices to be made to patients about this issue should be in the direction of taking all the required precautions in order not to catch the illnesses.
As a result, the reports about the patients and the illnesses should not make us refer to illnesses as encouraging. When the most of the reports are taken into consideration, what really matters is to be healthy and to wish health and wellness all the time. However, illness has always been a real part of life. In order to get rid of this condition in the most appropriate way, both physical and spiritual care is needed. In this study, some of the Prophet’s advices, which we regard not as medicine but as spiritual care, are evaluated.